Vectoria

BRITAIN’S VICTORIA MEMORIAL HOSPITAL IN BAHRAIN

BRITAIN’S VICTORIA MEMORIAL HOSPITAL IN BAHRAIN

The book titled “Britain’s Victoria Memorial Hospital in Bahrain”, by Dr. Hamad Al-Abdulla reviews the administration of Britain’s Victoria Memorial Hospital in Bahrain. It examines the hospital’s role as a charitable platform serving the people of Bahrain. The study outlines four main axes: the hospital’s medical services, its administrative structure, its international dimension, and the challenges it faces. It highlights the hospital’s development under British political supervision, its local service expansion, administrative challenges, and the model it provides for healthcare. The study also discusses the historical context leading to the hospital’s establishment and its significance within Bahrain’s British colonial history. Key words: hospital, Bahrain, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa, Gangaram, British political residency, Victoria Memorial.

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The BRICS Group and the Scenario of Issuing a New Currency

The BRICS Group and the Scenario of Issuing a New Currency

Since the establishment of the BRICS organization in 2009, the idea of creating a common currency for the BRICS group (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) has been considered as a means to compete with the U.S. dollar on the agenda of emerging markets. This idea also aims to enhance economic cooperation, encourage trade, and promote growth among the member countries. The motivation behind this proposal is the U.S. administration’s use of the U.S. dollar as a geopolitical weapon, engaging in a form of financial warfare by imposing sanctions on adversarial countries and depriving them of access to the U.S. dollar-dominated capital market. This also includes restricting their access to the international payment system centered around the U.S. dollar.

Dr. Ali Faqeeh

Research Associate

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Why do some countries excel over others in science and technology?

Why do some countries excel over others in science and technology?

Progress in science and technology is essential for the advancement of economies and markets worldwide. This research question is considered one of the most important for policymakers today, yet it is also one of the least understood. It involves understanding what makes some countries excel over others in science and technology. Could the answer be related to a specific political policy adopted by the governing authority? Or does it have to do with the presence of skilled human capital and financial resources in a particular country? Perhaps it is linked to the size of the market, the diversity of sectors and industries, or the quality of education and societal culture.

To answer this complex question, we will explore the scientific perspectives presented by Mark Taylor in his book “The Policy of Innovation,” where he contributed to solving this puzzle by addressing three crucial questions: First, what encourages a state to innovate? Second, how can countries innovate? Third, why do some countries innovate better than others in science and technology over the long term?

Dr. Ali Faqeeh

Research Associate

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Toward the successful implementation of national policies and strategies… Determination is essential!

Toward the successful implementation of national policies and strategies… Determination is essential!

The success of any policy is contingent upon its strategic planning and design to achieve its desired objectives. This is not unfamiliar to many countries, where their policies and strategies undergo thorough study and design, utilizing comprehensive plans, optimal methods, ideal tools, and clear procedures to address specific problems. The government determines the suitable tool and assesses its impact.

Policy design can be contradictory and confusing for governments aiming to satisfy various stakeholders and adapt to evolving citizen demands, while attempting to implement policies consistently over time.

There are numerous current design tools available for governments to use for specific political goals. Often, the challenge lies in the fact that once governments transition from the design phase to the implementation phase, the design phase is closed permanently, leading to potential problems during implementation.

To address this issue, future governments can benefit from aligning design and implementation, rather than treating them as entirely separate elements. Policymakers can achieve this by integrating specific mechanisms (stakeholder feedback) during the implementation phase, making policy design flexible enough for continuous adjustment if the current implementation indicates the need for modification.

The Smart Policy Design and Implementation Center at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University theoretically focuses on policy design, involving six crucial steps. This approach combines many strategic elements that mutually support each other. Improving policy design is integrated into each of the following five steps:

Problem Definition: Identifying the problem that the policy aims to solve through communication with all relevant stakeholders, recognizing opportunities for collaborative problem-solving.

Diagnosis: Understanding the cause of the problem and distinguishing between the causes and symptoms.

Policy Design: Identifying options to address the problem, considering context, capacity, leveraging technology, expert opinions, stakeholder views, and available resources.

Execution: Implementing solutions designed to address the problem, not necessarily on a broad scale from the outset but through step-by-step execution.

Testing Policy Application Results: Testing the results of policy implementation outlined in the previous steps is a crucial step that naturally leads to improving policy application by correcting one or a set of steps if necessary.

The policy-making process is complex but continuous, requiring governments to be flexible in accepting stakeholder feedback, taking risks to reap benefits, avoiding catastrophic losses, being open to making mistakes and learning from them, and adjusting the course taken during the process.

Strategists in the public sector can apply this process to many national strategies, such as achieving the Kingdom’s 2030 Vision and beyond, Bahrain’s strategies for industry, environment, energy, food security, tourism, and other policies focusing on diversifying and sustaining non-oil sectors.

Dr. Ali Faqeeh

Research Associate

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Economic diversification and industrial development

Economic diversification and industrial development

Many advanced countries, which mostly lack natural resources, excel in both technological and non-technological manufacturing across various sectors. For example, Japan is renowned for its automobile manufacturing, Germany for machinery, and Korea for technological goods. Each country excels in its leading industries within certain sectors. However, these countries do not confine themselves to manufacturing specific types of goods; rather, they open up to other industries that can drive economic growth, create more job opportunities, and increase innovation and leadership in the industrial sector.

As mentioned above, countries like Germany, the United States, Japan, Korea, and France have various industries such as pharmaceuticals, weapons, technological goods, automobiles, computer and electronics manufacturing, and more.

However, these countries have developed these industries over decades. So how can countries like Bahrain begin to catch up with the industrial diversification in these nations, which in turn boosts exports and gross domestic product (GDP) in the industrial sector, aiming for the economic diversification sought by Bahrain as part of the Vision 2030 economic agenda?

One of the most important key steps that can be designed with the participation of all stakeholders is to formulate a comprehensive strategy for the industrial sector. A detailed study of the industrial sectors in Bahrain and how they can be developed should be conducted. Kenichi Ohno, a Japanese expert in development economics and international finance, mentions in his book “A History of Economic Development in Japan” that Japan was a backward country and needed to align with technological advancements in advanced European and American countries to achieve technological development goals. Ohno emphasizes that Japan’s economic vision must be based on a thorough analysis of global trends and that “there is a real need to design and implement a comprehensive and precise plan for reconstruction.” He suggests that “each important industrial sector should be analyzed accurately, and precise and realistic promotional programs should be proposed.” Ohno further states that “Japan should focus on industries that rely on skilled labor intensification.”

Therefore, Ohno points out that Japan has taken two important steps: first, developing a comprehensive plan and conducting an in-depth study of the industrial sectors that Japan aims to develop.

Secondly, Japan began sending missions to study these industries abroad, in addition to attracting foreign investments for these industries from abroad to transfer experience and knowledge to the domestic sector and develop these industries domestically.

Due to the significant progress of many industries in advanced countries, it is challenging for Gulf Arab countries to start from scratch to keep up with industrial development in these countries. Therefore, the relative advantage or relative progress of these countries poses a significant obstacle to Gulf Arab countries. However, there are some solutions proposed by Ohno in his book on how to develop local industrial sectors. The author suggests that one of the solutions to follow is to draw up a comprehensive strategic plan for the industrial sector through detailed studies on how to transform the industrial sector in Bahrain and how to open up new industries locally that can drive economic growth, create more job opportunities, and intensify skilled labor. This strategy must be clear and comprehensive in achieving its goals, and cooperation among stakeholders is essential in drawing up these plans and taking into account their different opinions on how to achieve these proposed goals.

The second step comes from the perspective of attracting technological industries from foreign countries that excel in these industries. This contributes to transferring expertise and knowledge and further developing this sector in the future. However, before that, we must know what challenges and obstacles stand in the way of attracting these industries domestically. Are there any laws or regulations hindering? Are investors and businessmen lacking clear guiding principles on how to open such industries? For example, are there specific laws and regulations related to the automotive industry in Bahrain? And how much time does it take to open a car manufacturing company, pharmaceutical factory, or others? These questions, despite their simplicity, are crucial for businessmen and investors. Plans related to the industry must ensure a clear methodology in dealing with and addressing these problems and continuously testing them to ensure the achievement of the goals set by the state.

Dr. Abdulla AlAbbasi

Abdulla AlAbbasi

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